1. Why should we apply carbon dioxide fertilizer when planting grapes in greenhouses?
Carbon dioxide is the main material necessary for crop photosynthesis. The carbon dioxide saturation point of grape photosynthesis is generally above 1000 mg/kg, but the carbon dioxide concentration of natural air is generally around 330 mg/kg. The cultivation of facilities through ventilation can only maintain the indoor carbon dioxide concentration at 200 mg / kg, the highest does not exceed 330 mg / kg. Therefore, the grape plants are in a state of carbon dioxide starvation, which seriously restricts the photosynthesis of the grapes, and thus seriously restricts the increase of grape yield and the improvement of quality. Therefore, the artificial application of carbon dioxide gas fertilizer in facility cultivation is the main measure to improve the yield and quality of grapes. By artificially applying carbon dioxide gas fertilizer, the grape leaves are thickened, the chlorophyll content is increased, and the functional period is prolonged. Therefore, the photosynthesis of the leaves is enhanced, the ear and the fruit are enlarged, and the yield is increased, generally increasing the yield by about 20%. After artificial application of carbon dioxide gas fertilizer, the content of soluble solids in grapes can be increased by 1% to 2%, which greatly improves the quality of grapes, and the stress resistance of grapes is also greatly improved.
Second, the method of artificially adding carbon dioxide gas fertilizer
1. Carbon dioxide generator method: the carbon dioxide gas is generated by a chemical reaction to increase the concentration of carbon dioxide gas in the air to achieve the purpose of fertilization and increase the quality of the grapes. The carbon dioxide generator is composed of an acid storage tank, a reaction tube, a carbon dioxide purification absorption tube, an air guiding tube, and the like, and the chemical reaction substance is a strong acid (dilute sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid) and a carbonate (ammonium carbonate, ammonium hydrogencarbonate, etc.) to generate carbon dioxide gas. . At present, the cultivation of dilute sulfuric acid and ammonium bicarbonate is generally used in facility cultivation. The final product carbon dioxide gas is directly used for facility cultivation. At the same time, the produced ammonium sulfate can be used as a fertilizer. The advantage is that carbon dioxide is rapid, gas production is large, and the price is simple and easy. Moderate and effective.
2, carbon dioxide simple device method: that is, every 7 ~ 8 meters in the greenhouse to hang a plastic basin or barrel, the height is generally about 1.5 meters, pour the appropriate amount of dilute sulfuric acid, add ammonium bicarbonate at any time, instantly produce carbon dioxide gas.
3. Fertilization method: direct application of liquid carbon dioxide or carbon dioxide particles and gas fertilizer.
Third, the greenhouse grape carbon dioxide fertilizer application time
It is generally applied before and after flowering, especially during the expansion period of young fruit and the ripening period of berry coloration. This application is particularly beneficial for berry enlargement and quality improvement. Carbon dioxide gas fertilizer is generally applied about half an hour after the exposure. After mid-April, when the grasshoppers are not covered at night, generally after 1 hour after sunrise, the application starts when the temperature in the facility reaches 20 °C or higher, and the application is stopped half an hour before the start of ventilation. The concentration of carbon dioxide gas fertilizer should be adjusted according to the weather conditions. When the temperature in the sunny facility is high, the concentration of carbon dioxide gas fertilizer should be higher, generally 800~1200 mg/kg. It should be lower on a cloudy day, generally around 600 mg/kg. If the temperature in the cloudy facility is low, it is generally not applied to avoid carbon dioxide gas poisoning.
Fourth, the application of carbon dioxide fertilizer matters needing attention
1. When using carbon dioxide generator and simple device, it should be noted that concentrated sulfuric acid should be slowly injected into the water when diluting concentrated sulfuric acid. Never pour water into concentrated sulfuric acid to avoid violent reaction caused by sulfuric acid splash.
2. The application of carbon dioxide gas fertilizer cannot be suddenly interrupted. The application concentration should be reduced day by day several days before the grape fruit harvesting period, until the application is stopped to prevent premature senescence of the plant.
3. The application of carbon dioxide gas fertilizer should be combined with other management measures. At the same time, the application of carbon dioxide gas fertilizer should increase the application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer, and appropriately increase the air humidity and soil moisture in the facility. In the temperature management, pay attention to the indoor temperature during the day is 2 ° C ~ 3 ° C higher than the carbon dioxide gas fertilizer, and 1 ° C ~ 2 ° C lower at night to prevent the plant length.